From Encyklopedia Administracji Publicznej
BUDGETARY SURPLUS – a positive difference between income and budgetary expenses. The negative difference between income and budgetary expenses is the BUDGET DEFICIT. The size of the b.s. (b.d.) is determined annually in the budget act (in the case of the state budget) or in the budget resolution (in the case of the budget of local-government units). The Public Finance Act defines the surplus/deficit of: 1. public finance sector – a positive difference between public incomes and public expenses, determined for the settlement period; 2. the state budget – a positive difference between incomes and expenses of the state budget; 3. the budget of European funds – a positive difference between income and expenses of the European funds budget; 4. budget of the local-government unit – a positive difference between incomes and expenses of the budget of the local-government unit. In the case of the budget of local-government units, the operating (current) surplus can be additionally defined as a positive difference between current incomes and current expenses. Pursuant to the Public Finance Act, the decision-making body of a local-government unit cannot adopt a budget in which the planned current expenses are higher than the planned current income increased by the b.s. from the previous years and free funds as cash surpluses on the current account of the budget of a local-government unit, resulting from settlements of issued securities, credits and loans from previous years. As a rule, local-government units should therefore show an operating surplus. B.s. from previous years may be used to finance loan needs or budget expenses [ T. Strąk ].
Literature: T. Lubińska, Budżet a finanse publiczne [Budget and public finances], Warszawa 2010 ■ S. Owsiak, Finanse publiczne. Współczesne ujęcie [Public finances. Contemporary perspective], Warszawa 2017 ■ T. Uryszek, Dług skarbu państwa jako źródło finansowania deficytu budżetowego [The debt of the State Treasury as a source of financing the budget deficit], Warszawa 2010.