From Encyklopedia Administracji Publicznej
CIVIL SERVICE – a separate group of people employed under public or private law for the purpose of carrying out the tasks specified in the law, guided by a specific system of norms, values and procedures designed to serve the public and maintain the essential functions of the state. Inseparable element of the c.s. is the → public service mission that is based on such standards as: fidelity to the constitution, being apolitical/politically neutral, impartiality, loyalty to superiors, stability of employment, reliability and professionalism, equal opportunity, equality of access and competitiveness in recruitment to the service, management with the participation of the citizens themselves and in the interest of the citizens. These principles should give the answer to how the c.s. corps is intended to serve the public to meet a variety of diverse social needs in a dynamically changing reality. The essence of c.s. is to make, within the public administration, a specific division of power between the changing political power and democratic elections and the permanent professional staff of officials. The division is specific because it assumes not only the interaction, but also the subordination (full regarding service, as well as partial personal) of people who are part of the professional c.s. The establishment of a professional c.s., independent of the political power elected in the democratic elections, is proper on the condition that the officials will also respect the principles of democracy and stand for its protection. By exercising their powers, they must act in accordance with government policies and realize that the ultimate authority belongs to those chosen by society. C.s. corps is not chosen through elections, so there is no democratic legitimacy. In democratic states, from the mid-19th century to the first decade of the 21st century, three basic models of c.s. were developed: → career model, called promotional or closed, → positional model, called position or managerial model, and → mixed model, called hybrid [ J. Itrich-Drabarek ].
Literature: J. Itrich-Drabarek, Uwarunkowania, standardy i kierunki zmian służby cywilnej w Polsce na tle europejskim [Conditions, standards and directions of changes in the civil service in Poland against the European background], Warszawa 2010 ■ J. Itrich-Drabarek, The Civil Service in Poland – Theory and Experience, Frankfurt am Main 2015.