Connections between public administration and interest groups
From Encyklopedia Administracji Publicznej
CONNECTIONS BETWEEN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INTEREST GROUPS – B. Guy Peters distinguishes between the following types of connections: legalism, clientelism, parantela relationship, and illegitimate pressures. Legalism is a situation in which interests groups (in.gr., also called pressure groups) are recognized as natural actors in the mechanisms of political decision-making (e.g., in Germany or in the Netherlands). Clientelism is a model in which public administration recognizes selected in.gr. as natural and actual representatives of particular social interests. The number of in.gr. is limited and their choice belongs to the public administration. The non-selected in.gr. have no opportunity to express their views. The disadvantage of this model is the lack of formal-legal basis for the representation of selected in.gr., which lowers their effectiveness, narrows the participation of wide social groups in collective life and arouses social distrust. Clientelism means mutual dependence between public administration and in.gr. and is typical for the USA. Parantela relationship is a very strong link between the in.gr. and the public administration or ruling political party. Its characteristic feature is the existence of indirect relationships between administration and in.gr. Usually a hegemonic party is the mediator, and in.gr. exert influence on public affairs through the friendly support of a political party controlling public administration. Parantela relationship is typical not only for the former Soviet Union or Latin American countries, but also for democratic societies, such as Italy during the Christian democratic rule, or the V Republic of France. The last type is illegitimate pressures, which means that in.gr. do not fit in the official structures, and their appearance means that the interests of a part of society are not taken into account in policy decisions. Illegitimate pressures are redistributive, and their main purpose is to force the public administration to consider previously ignored requests. They are present in every political system, both in South America and in Europe (→ lobbying) [ J. Itrich-Drabarek ].
Literature: G. Peters, Administracja publiczna w systemie politycznym [Public administration in the political system]. Warszawa 1999.