From Encyklopedia Administracji Publicznej
DECONCENTRATION – in the simplest sense it means dispersing, spreading into different places of something focused. In the systemic sense it means dispersing competences of authorities among different decision centres or institutions. One can differentiate: territorial deconcentration (in cases of dividing competences among decision centres on central, regional, local levels) or substantial deconcentration (regarding dispersing the decision-making competences among a few bodies of the same level). The genesis of the formation of dec. of public administration dates back to mid-19th century, but the real development can be observed from the mid-20th century. The states where dec. can be found include among others: France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy. Dec. can be understood in a dynamic or static sense. Dec. in a dynamic sense means the process of dividing competences. By deconcentrating one understands: transferring competences to lower- or equal-level bodies, which is done by normative act of the law or by a normative act of the authority transferring competences, with the hierarchical superiority of the supervisory bodies within the scope of delegated powers and budgetary dependencies. Dec. in the static sense means the division of competences among particular administrative bodies. A high level of dec. can be observed when the lower-level bodies have a significant scope of competences compared to the supervisory administrative bodies or higher level bodies. The static dec. of public administration can be divided into horizontal (meaning: departmental, substantial, i.e. dispersion of competences in public administration bodies of the same level), vertical (meaning territorial – dispersion of competences from higher-level administration bodies to lower-level administration bodies), and oblique (dispersion of competences from higher-level public administration bodies to lower-level public administration bodies outside the structure of one department) [ K.A. Kuć-Czajkowska ].
Literature: M. Barański, S. Kantyka, S. Kubas, M. Kuś, Samorząd terytorialny i wspólnoty lokalne [Local government and local communities], Warszawa 2007 ■ B. Dolnicki, Samorząd terytorialny [Local government], Kraków 2016 ■ W. Zając, Zasadniczy trójstopniowy podział terytorialny Polski. Komentarz do przepisów [The basic three-tier territorial division of Poland. A commentary on the rules], Warszawa 1999.