From Encyklopedia Administracji Publicznej

GOVERNANCE – the scientific paradigm that assumes that due to the complexity of contemporary social processes, it is justified to depart from traditional governance, based on the principles of hierarchy and bureaucracy, to make decisions in the course of negotiations with other entities, actors and stakeholders. It gained popularity in the second half of the 20th century. Gov. can be defined as a process of controlling the networks of non-hierarchical interdependencies occurring between public and non-public actors, used to coordinate collective actions and solve collective problems. Gov. can also be seen as a structure, mechanism or strategy. There are a few basic trends of gov. The first one emphasizes cooperation, interdependence, partnership and network (collaborative, interactive and network governance). The second one emphasizes the subjects of relations, including representative bodies and citizens, or relations between them at particular levels (democratic, participatory and multi-level governance). The third trend emphasizes methods and tools for shaping relations, including normative acts and other directive action or state interventions (regulatory and metagovernance). For the fourth trend, the range of relationships is essential: from local to global (local, metropolitan, regional, European and global governance). The fifth one emphasizes the interaction between the individual and the environment or the economy (environmental and economic governance). In the sixth trend, the reference point is the normative category or hyperpluralistic reality (good, new public governance). The practical implementation of the principles of cooperation is problematic due to the complexity of network governance and insufficient responsibility and accountability of stakeholders – private and social – involved in the decision-making process [ K. Radzik-Maruszak ].

Literature: Governance, ed. D. Levi-Faur, Oxford 2012 ■ A. Pawłowska, Governance jako podejście teoretyczne – kilka kwestii spornych [Governance as a theoretical approach – a few contentious issues], „Polityka i Społeczeństwo” 2016, no. 3 ■ Współzarządzanie publiczne [Public co-management], ed. S. Mazur, Warszawa 2015.