Internal security

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INTERNAL SECURITY – refers to the process of satisfying the needs and interests of the society of a given country. This process is carried out in a complex environment, and its consequences apply not only to interested individuals and social groups, environments, regions and entire countries, but also to other communities, for example due to the spatial spread of threats that do not know the concept of “state border” (e.g., terrorism). The concept of i.s. results from the theory of the state that distinguishes two of its functions: external and internal. Thus, it is closely related to the institution of the state, which is why quite often in the legal doctrine the more detailed term is used: internal security of the state. On the other hand, as part of the safety education, the i.s. is being placed as part of national security. This kind of security is often understood in two ways. In the narrower view, i.s. refers to the basic (traditional) functions of the modern state: protection of the territory, political-systemic order, social stability and ensuring a sense of security for citizens (protection of life and health). On the other hand, a wider sense of i.s. goes beyond state institutions, as it derives from the spirit of liberalism, and also adopts a global (supranational) character resulting from various transnational forms of international cooperation. In this understanding of i.s. all social and cultural activities of people are included (e.g., activities of non-governmental organisations). In this situation, the issues of privatization of security and social security appear. The matters of i.s. have not yet received in-depth studies, therefore the concept is not universal. In particular countries, or parts of the world, it is interpreted differently. The nature, types and specificity of threats have an influence on its objective scope. In the United States (the term home security), it covers the issues of: terrorism, organised crime (including drugs), illegal migration and spying, which is the subject of federal institutions. On the other hand, the EU’s Internal Security Strategy lists the following threats: terrorism in every form – marked by absolute disregard for human life and democratic values; organised crime – in various forms, regardless of state borders; cybercrime – a global, technical, cross-border and anonymous threat to information systems; cross-border crime – having a major impact on everyday lives of Europeans; violence (in itself) – increasing the damage already caused by crime and harmful to the society; natural disasters and anthropogenic factors – such as: forest fires, earthquakes, floods, storms, droughts, energy failures and failures of large-scale IT systems [ A. Misiuk ].

Literature: A. Misiuk, Instytucjonalny system bezpieczeństwa wewnętrznego [Institutional system of internal security], Warszawa 2013 ■ C. Rutkowski, Bezpieczeństwo wewnętrzne. Tożsamość – kierowanie – zarządzanie [Internal security. Identity - directing - management], Warszawa 2010 ■ B. Wiśniewski, Z. Ścibiorek, A. Dawidczyk, B.R. Kuc, Bezpieczeństwo wewnętrzne. Podręcznik akademicki [Internal security. Academic handbook], Toruń 2015.