Crisis management

From Encyklopedia Administracji Publicznej

CRISIS MANAGEMENT – activities performed by public administration bodies (government and local government) that are an important element of national security management (a key part of the national security system, which includes public authority bodies and heads of organisational units performing tasks related to national security, as well as advisory bodies, administrative apparatus, operational procedures and related infrastructure). C.m. is created by four interrelated and parallel groups of activities, referred to as phases (stages): 1. prevention of crisis situations (c.s.) – minimizing the risk (probability and consequences) of the occurrence of threats, which is primarily implemented by law-making, e.g., fire-fighting, and its enforcement; 2. preparation for taking over control over the c.s. through implementation of planned activities – civil planning and c.m. plans (including, in particular, crisis response procedures), exercises and social education; 3. reaction to the c.s. in the event of their occurrence – assistance to victims and limiting material losses, implemented in a coordinated manner by institutions specialised in providing security, i.e. service, inspections, guards; verification of the preparation phase; 4. removal of the effects of c.s. and reconstruction of resources and critical infrastructure (i.e. key infrastructure for → security of the state and its citizens, aimed at ensuring the efficient functioning of public administration bodies, as well as institutions and entrepreneurs) – for example, estimating losses, financial assistance and providing basic living conditions for the evacuated population. C.s. is understood as situations adversely affecting the level of safety of people, property on a large scale or the environment (“the area of the victims” – a greater scale of the consequences of threats and the resulting social response) and causing significant restrictions in the operation of the relevant public administration bodies due to the inadequacy of possessed forces and resources (“the area of the responsible” – insufficient forces [human resources] and resources [material resources, including financial], as well as methods [ways] that enable effective functioning), resulting in the need to coordinate and support the taken actions. C.s. constitutes c.m., placing the tasks carried out within its framework between the so-called everyday hazards, such as road collisions (high probability of occurrence, low impact, limited social reaction, lack of coordination and support of responsive services, inspections and guards, lack of additional authoritative powers) and special threats that come down to exceptional states, i.e. state of disaster, state of emergency and martial law (low probability of occurrence, catastrophic consequences, dramatic social reaction, insufficient ordinary constitutional means, leading to changes in the rules of operation of public authorities and increasing the scope of restrictions on human and civil rights and freedoms). (→ crisis management organisation) [M. Brzeziński]

Literature: M. Brzeziński, Sytuacja kryzysowa w rozumieniu ustawy z dnia 26 kwietnia 2007 r. o zarządzaniu kryzysowym – analiza pojęcia [Crisis situation within the meaning of the Act of 26 April 2007 on crisis management – concept analysis], ,,e-Politikon” 2013, no. 6 ■ W. Skomra, Zarządzanie kryzysowe. Praktyczny przewodnik [Crisis management. A practical guide], Wrocław 2016.