From Encyklopedia Administracji Publicznej
LOCAL DEVELOPMENT – in the subject term it is the process, in which the following actors such as local authorities, institutions, organizations and private entities use local opportunities and resources running activity in different dimensions for the local society and its members purpose. In the Polish three-tier system of local government l.d. refers to two levels: local communes and poviats (the secondary trier of local government in Poland) with the emphasize on local communes. From the local government it is expected that it will be the lifebloof of l.d. with the widest representation of local society’s interests. L.d. is characterized by the following properties: it is the process, which lasts so it cannot be done once; it refers to the territory, so it is territorial development than sectoral development; the fact that l.d. pertains to local system, it fosters mobilization of the society, it evokes the feeling of belonging to the society and to the territory; initiatives, creativity and ingenuity of local actors largely depend on the their awareness that they have influence on formulating and performing the strategy of local development; it is the example of autonomous model of development, which is based on unit’s potential, which fosters involvement of local actors in process; it gives feeling of independence and awareness to decide about own destiny; l.d. should be created by different actors, whose activities should be based on cooperation and collaboration and the score of their mutual negotiations should lead to creation of acceptable program; the core role in the local development creation play undisputedly local authorities. Currently l.d. is increasingly determined by mutual connections as well as mutual effects of material factors. The factors of l.d. are the components or properties of the territory or phenomenon, which is emerged in its boarders, which effects its state changes, it means it influences its social-economic development. The characteristic feature of l.d. is relatively small mobility of main development features. L. d. is analyzed in many dimensions, in the literature there are presented many different classifications. One of them is the division into 5 dimensions: social-cultural, environmental, infrastructural, economic and spatial one. Each of them includes the set of different features and factors, which determine l.d. The social-cultural dimension embraces population, education, professional skills, local society integration, living conditions, institutions and social services. To environmental dimension includes: the environmental components and resources, the state of pollution and the environment destruction, ecological infrastructure and ecological awareness. The infrastructural dimension includes local and supraregional technical infrastructure; organization of infrastructure sectors; infrastructural gap, infrastructural reserves and infrastructural investments. In the economic dimension there are: economic resources, business activity according to sectors and branches; economic functions, local and regional markets, economic base of cities and regions; external benefits, social costs, common goods and cities’ competitiveness. The spatial dimension includes land management, functional-spatial systems; spatial availability; composition and spatial order; spatial values. L.d. is one of the main factors → regional development and reinforcement → region competitiveness. (→ local society; municipality; communal economy; regional development) [M. Balcerek-Kosiarz]
Literatura: A. Jewtuchowicz, Dynamika rozwoju terytorialnego a procesy restrukturyzacji gospodarczej, [w:] Aktualne problemy gospodarki lokalnej, red. A. Zalewski, Warszawa 1996 ■ J.J. Parysek, Rola samorządu terytorialnego w rozwoju lokalnym, [w:] Rozwój lokalny: zagospodarowanie przestrzenne i nisze atrakcyjności gospodarczej, red. J.J. Parysek, Poznań 1995 ■ A. Sekuła, Koncepcje rozwoju lokalnego w świetle współczesnej literatury polskiej – zarys problemu, „Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Gdańskiej. Ekonomia” 2001, t. 40.