Mixed model (hybrid) of civil service

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MIXED MODEL (HYBRID) OF CIVIL SERVICE – it combines the features of a → career model and a → positional model, sometimes with one of these two basic models as dominant. The civil service evolution that has occurred in many countries in the second half of the 20th century has resulted in a slow transition from the career model to the positional model. In this way, even in such “bedrocks” of career model as Germany or Northern Ireland, reforms have been introduced to strengthen the motivation system for civil servants. Also in the EU institutions after 2000 we can see a strong trend in this direction. The closest model to the mix model can be observed in Italy. Although in the literature Italy is classified among the countries where the positional model is dominant, its model features some of the classic elements of the career model: formalized recruitment procedures, established promotion system, non-performance-related wage. The mixed model was adopted by Poland, Hungary, Malta, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Latvia, Switzerland, Italy [ J. Itrich-Drabarek ].

Literature: Ch. Demmke, Civil Services Between Tradition and Reform, EIPA, Maastricht 2004 ■ J. Itrich-Drabarek, Uwarunkowania, standardy i kierunki zmian służby cywilnej w Polsce na tle europejskim, Warszawa 2010 ■ J. Itrich-Drabarek, The Civil Service in Poland – Theory and Experience, Frankfurt am Main 2015.